Chrysanthemums originated in China.
Chrysanthemum indicum and Chrysanthemum sinense are
both natives of China and are the source of all modern show chrysanthemums.
Confucius recorded chrysanthemum cultivation as early as
The word chrysanthemum is derived from two Greek words CHRYSOS (gold) and ANTHOS (a flower).
The Chinese have named a city after the chrysanthemum -
The Chrysanthemum is the National Flower of Japan.
The Japanese have a Chrysanthemum Day on the ninth day of
the ninth month. The Imperial Order of the Chrysanthemum is the highest order of chivalry
in the land.
In 1688 chrysanthemums were imported to Holland but
In 1789 M Blancard of Marseilles imported 3 varieties from
China, one, named 'Old Purple', survived to take a place in chrysanthemum history.
Eight varieties arrived in England from China in the late
eighteenth century. There were 24 recognised varieties in existence by 1824 and 48 by
The National Chrysanthemum Society (UK) was founded in
Stoke Newington, England in 1846.
In 1860 Robert Fortune obtained many new forms from his
visit to Japan. These new strains had considerable impact on future hybridisation.
Chrysanthemums were cultivated in Tasmania in 1836, in New
South Wales in 1843, Victoria in 1855 and New Zealand in 1860.
In the late nineteenth century there was enthusiastic take
up of the chrysanthemum in the USA.
Chrysanthemums are classified into 29 sections to identify
type and natural flowering time.
Chrysanthemums are colour coded - there are 21 colour
Chrysanthemums are further classified by size of blooms
(large, medium, small).
The UK register of Chrysanthemums (updated and re-issued
in 1997) contains over 5000 entries. There must be many more thousands registered in other
Chrysanthemums respond to day length - this is used to
advantage by commercial growers in the production of AYR (All Year Round) crops.
There are national societies in Canada, Australia, New
Zealand, USA, France, and South Africa.
Chrysanthemums can be cultivated in bonsai form.
Bloom size can be as small as 1cm for bonsai and as large
as 25cms for Large Exhibition types.
The florists flower section has grown to enormous
proportions largely due to the AYR cultivation techniques that maximise the flexibility of
In the UK chrysanthemums are grown for decorative garden
impact, for cut flowers and as a specialist flower for the exhibitor.
In the UK the Ox-eye Daisy and the Corn Marigold are types
Marguerites (chrysanthemum frutescens) are
indigenous to the Canary Islands.
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Last updated on 23 December, 2001